Assessing the human health risk of Baltic Sea sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) consumption
The current study assessed health risks posed by exposure to metals from the consumption of Baltic Sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). Concentrations of essential minerals in sea trout muscles were determined and compared with the physiological requirements of these minerals in Polish nutrition standards, recommended dietary allowances (RDA), and estimated average requirements (EAR). Chemical analyses indicated that sea trout was rich in phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. The pattern significance gradation of the element concentrations was as follows: P>Ca>Mg>Na>K>Fe>Zn>Cu>Se>Mn>Co. Sea trout consumption can provide a considerable portion of the RDA of copper, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, and zinc. The ranking order of the mean toxic element concentrations in sea trout muscle tissues was As>Pb>Cd>Hg. Potential risk estimated with the hazard quotient (HQ) indicated that most metals posed no health risk because they did not exceed reference doses at HQ < 1. For carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects, the maximum allowable rates of sea
trout consumption were sufficiently high to ensure human health. According to these data, the consumption of farmed sea trout from the Baltic Sea in the northern region of
Pomerania, Poland did not pose a risk to human health.